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3. Conţinutul cercetării - continuare
50.2011 – Alexandre Smirnov – Biological significance of 5S rRNA import into human mitochondria: role of ribosomal protein MRP-L18
Thus, it appears that the entire 5S rRNA mitochondrial import pathway serves finally the same goal as its cytosolic counterpart: to direct a 5S rRNA molecule to the place of assembly of ribosomal subunits. Remarkable is the mirroring parallelism of both pathways, which depend on binding to either a eukaryotic or bacterial-type member of the same family of ribosomal proteins, inducing certain conformational changes in 5S rRNA and using their nucleolar or mitochondrial localization signals to deliver 5S rRNA to nascent ribosomes of the corresponding cellular compartment (Fig. 9). This represents the new example of an adaptation mechanism developed by eukaryotic cells to reinforce control over the mitochondrial genetic system. .. it seems probable that this situation might be generalized over all of the kingdom. What is the function of 5S rRNA inside mitoribosomes?
51.2012 – Shelley Adamo – Animal mind control
The poor zombified cockroach is sort of a living larder. It gets walled up with the egg that then hatches and slowly consumes the cockroach.
53.2012 – Umberto Galderisi - Good but not good enough
The system for funding scientific research is broken. This declaration came to my mind after I experienced three separate occurrences. The first was my application for a European research grant. At the end of the evaluation procedure, the reviewers wrote that my proposal was interesting, I had a good track record of publications, and the project had been well described. Nevertheless, they had to reject my application since I am a “good” but not “outstanding” researcher. This reply was received after I had applied for dozens of research grants without success. My reading of a comment by John P. A. Ioannidis in Nature (477,529–531 2011) was the second occurrence. He wrote: “...the research behind 30 percent of the pivotal papers from Nobel Laureates in medicine, physics, and chemistry was done without direct funding.” The third occurrence was the refusal by a grad student of mine to enroll in my PhD program. He replied to me: “Thank you for your offer; I am proud of it, but I have to find a way to earn money in a better way. Prestige is not something you can use to pay bills.”
55.2012 – Indiana Senate - Backs Creationism Bill
After deliberating for less than 20 minutes on Tuesday (January 31), the Indiana State Senate approved a bill allowing schools to teach “various theories concerning the origin of life,” including those of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and Scientology… According to a spokeswoman for the Indiana Department of Education, the state will not develop curriculums or guidelines for teaching creationism, but will leave that up to the individual schools.
59.2012 – Keiji Nishida – Induction of Biogenic Magnetization and Redox Control by a Component of the Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling Pathway
Yeast cells aren’t normally magnetic, but a little genetic engineering can make them thralls to a magnetic field. The research, published today (February 28) in PLoS Biology, suggests that manipulations of a few widely expressed genes could be enough to get any cell magnetized, which could be a powerful tool for both research and medicine. … Though some bacteria create magnetic nanoparticles and animals such as homing pigeons use magnetic fields to navigate, biomagnetism is a rare phenomenon. Magnetotactic bacteria create special membrane-bound organelles that concentrate magnetic iron minerals. I’m interested in building cells that respond to certain types of input, and now we have a new kind of input.
62.2012 – Gunther Witzany – Biocommuniation in soil microorganisms
Communication is defined as an interaction between at least two living agents which share a repertoire of signs. These are combined according to syntactic, semantic and context-dependent, pragmatic rules in order to coordinate behavior. This volume deals with the important roles of soil bacteria in parasitic and symbiotic interactions with viruses, plants, animals and fungi. Starting with a general overview of the key levels of communication between bacteria, further reviews examine the various aspects of intracellular as well as intercellular biocommunication between soil microorganisms. This includes the various levels of biocommunication between phages and bacteria, between soil algae and bacteria, and between bacteria, fungi and plants in the rhizosphere, the role of plasmids and transposons, horizontal gene transfer, quorum sensing and quorum quenching, bacterial-host cohabitation, phage-mediated genetic exchange and soil viral ecology.
64.2013 – Elizabeth Issac Aleman – Effects of EMFs on Some Biological Parameters in Coffee Plants (Coffea arabica L.) Obtained by in vitro Propagation
Electromagnetic fields 2 mT induction and three minutes of exposure on Coffea arabica seedlings improved growth parameters in all development stages. In addition, the seedlings showed a decrease in SOD, CAT, and APX activities during in vitro culture. These results suggest that electromagnetic fields could increase the general metabolism on coffee plants and act on antioxidant enzymes of coffee seedlings obtained by in vitro propagation, improving plant growth and productivity, allowing EMF applications in the future.
65.2013 – Ana P. Gomes – Declining NAD+ Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging
These findings provide evidence for a new pathway that controls carbon utilization and OXPHOS independently of PGC-1a, a pathway that goes awry over time but is readily reversible, with implications for treating aging and age-related diseases.
66.2013 – Keren I. Hilgendorf – The retinoblastoma protein induces apoptosis directly at the mitochondria
The retinoblastoma protein gene RB-1 is mutated in one-third of human tumors… Of course, we are not arguing that pRB is essential for mitochondrial apoptosis; this process is consistently impaired, but not ablated, by pRB deficiency. Instead, we conclude that pRB is one of a growing list of proteins that are able to modulate the activity of core apoptotic regulators. We suspect that pRB acts at the mitochondria to fine-tune the apoptotic threshold because its effects are dose-dependent (both in vitro and with overexpression/ knockdown in vivo), it is constitutively localized to mitochondria, and it can potentiate many different proapoptotic signals. pRB’s proapoptotic role is highly reproducible, but the fold change in our cell studies could be judged as relatively modest (often twofold to threefold). … We believe that pRB’s overall proapoptotic function is likely a result of the combined effect of nuclear and mitochondrial pRB. The relative extent to which these two functions contribute to apoptosis is likely context-specific. However, our mito-tagged pRB experiments clearly showed that the mitochondrial function of pRB can contribute to apoptosis in response to a broad range of stimuli, including the oncogenic context of tumor cells. Most importantly, our in vivo xenograft studies establish the tumor-suppressive potential of mitochondrial pRB in the absence of classic, nuclear pRB functions. Given these observations, we conclude that mitochondrial apoptosis represents a novel and bona fide mechanism of tumor suppression for pRB. … Thus, it remains an open question how proapoptotic signals, including TNFa, trigger the mitochondrial pRB response.
67.2013 - Houtkooper – Mitonuclear protein imbalance as a conserved longevity mechanism
It’s well known that mitochondria are linked to health. Some evidence suggests that inhibiting mitochondrial function can be harmful—as in the case of diabetes or obesity—but earlier data from nematodes and fruit flies also suggest a link to lifespan increase... This mirrors work in mice showing that caloric restriction most affects lifespan if it occurs within the first few weeks of life…. In the meantime, he’s optimistic that his team has identified a “common thread” demonstrating that longevity is not affected so much by inhibiting or stimulating mitochondria, but how the organelles “deal with proteins.”
68.2013 – Kyu-Sun Lee – Roles of PINK1, mTORC2, and mitochondria in preserving brain tumor-forming stem cells in a noncanonical Notch signaling pathway
Our results emphasize the importance of mitochondria to N and NSC biology, with important implications for diseases associated with aberrant N signaling…. Although the exact mechanism remains to be determined, our results will help us to shown to act through AKT and mitochondria to promote T-cell survival (Perumalsamy et al. 2010), although the mechanism is distinct from the one uncovered here…. Our findings that CSC-like brain tumor-forming cells are particularly dependent on the noncanonical N pathway in flies and humans identify the newly discovered noncanonical N signaling pathway as a potential target for disease intervention.
69.2013 – David J. Pagliarini – Hallmarks of a new era in mitochondrial biochemistry
As mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly being implicated in a spectrum of human diseases, it is imperative that we construct a more complete framework of these organelles by systematically defining the functions of their component parts…. Mitochondria are iconic structures in biochemistry and cell biology. Their unmistakable double-membrane architecture rife with tortuous cristae—first revealed to the world in detail by the electron micrographs of Palade and Sjostrand in the early 1950s (Palade 1953; Sjostrand 1953)—are recognizable to anyone who has taken a high school biology course. That same group could also convey the raison d’etre of mitochondria: They are the cellular ‘‘powerhouses’’ that burn fuel from the food we eat to generate energy…. This is clearly exemplified by recent large-scale efforts to define the mitochondrial proteome. These studies have revealed the existence of hundreds of mitochondrial proteins with no known biochemical function while simultaneously providing a framework for resolving long-standing mysteries of mitochondrial biology. … The early years: mitochondria as the centers of cellular respiration - Lavoisier, who, in 1790, described respiration as being literally ‘‘. . .a slow combustion of carbon and hydrogen, similar in every way to that which takes place in a lamp or lighted candle’’ ,,, These discoveries and others too numerous to cover in detail here demonstrate that mitochondria are far more complex in form and function than anticipated decades ago. Moreover, as the known mitochondrial proteome remains chock-full of uncharacterized proteins and as more of the missing ;15%are now being identified (Kazak et al. 2013; Rhee et al. 2013), we can anticipate the coming decades to be as rich in new discoveries as the last. … Many uncharacterized mitochondrial proteins are now known to be mutated in human disease. .. This list of uncharacterized, disease-related mitochondrial proteins, which is sure to grow in the coming years, represents particularly highpriority targets for investigation… In the end, however, these are tools toward the generation of testable hypotheses. As it has been since Lavoisier and through the days of Warburg, Krebs, and Mitchell, new insights into mitochondrial form and function will also require dedicated scientists toiling away at the bench with open minds as to what they might discover.
71.2013 – Xi Wang – Deletion of MCL-1 causes lethal cardiac failure and mitochondrial dysfunction
However, while the overt consequences of Mcl-1 loss were obviated by combining with the loss of Bax and Bak, mitochondria from the Mcl-1-, Bax-, and Bak-deficient hearts still revealed mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities and displayed deficient mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data indicate that merely blocking cell death is insufficient to completely overcome the need for MCL-1 function in cardiomyocytes and suggest that in cardiac muscle, MCL-1 also facilitates normal mitochondrial function. …Further work will be necessary to functionally reconstitute cardiomyocytes of Mcl-1-deleted mice with individual MCL-1 mutants to functionally test the contribution of MCL-1’s anti-apoptotic function and its ability to promote mitochondrial function. … Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies will need to be carefully tailored to avoid long-term inhibition of MCL-1’s anti-apoptotic functions in the heart that could induce subsequent damage. Alternatively, we would also predict that strategies aimed at enhancing or maintaining MCL-1 function in cardiomyocytes may form the basis to improve heart function after acute cardiac stress or damage. To realize these goals, it will be important to gain greater understanding of the normal mechanisms by which MCL-1 is regulated in the myocardium and identify specifically how MCL-1’s functions participate in promoting heart function. However, this study represents the first step by identifying the critical anti-apoptotic player in the heart.
72.2014 – Esra A. Akbay – D-2-hydroxyglutarate produced by mutant IDH2 causes cardiomyopathy and neurodegeneration in mice
Results from both genetically engineered mice and nude mice carrying tumors expressing mutant IDH2 suggest that 2HG has a previously unrecognized role of development of cardiomyopathy. The cardiomyopathy and vacuolarization phenotypes specifically observed in mice embryonically expressing IDH2R140Q model the disease progression in the D2HGA patients. While differences in response were observed in different tissues, it is notable that the tissues with the highest mitochondrial activity (cardiac/skeletal muscle and brain) were most vulnerable to the 2HG-related metabolic insult….Our findings are in line with a prior report showing that expression of mutant IDH1 specifically in the bone marrow compartment fails to induce tumors even in aged mice (Sasaki et al. 2012). Notably, nearly all IDH mutations in human tumors are invariably concurrent with additional genetic alterations (such as inactivation of TP53 or P14ARF) or deletion of 1p/19q in glioma patients (Ichimura et al. 2009) and with NRAS, ASXL1, or FLT3mutations in leukemia patients (Rocquain et al. 2010). We found that mice engineered to express mutant IDH2 in specific tissues eventually develop carcinomas although only with very long latencies (data not shown). Thus, we believe that 2HG has transforming capability in vivo after very long exposures and may cooperate with other mutations to cause malignant tumors.
73.2014 – Jim Al-Khalili – Solving biology's mysteries using quantum mechanics. The new field of quantum biology applies the craziness of quantum physics to biology's most fundamental processes
Their theory caused a stir because it invoked quantum mechanics, the branch of physics that describes the behavior of particles in the subatomic realm. Their idea gave some insight into the origins of genetic mutations, which over the centuries have given rise to the variety of species in the biological kingdom, and in the short term can lead to the development of diseases like cancer. The proposal was scoffed at, however, sparking incredulity from both biologists and physicists because quantum effects supposedly hold sway only on the smallest scales and cannot govern large biological molecules. Senior colleagues in physics warned me off this line of research, saying, ‘This isn’t just speculative, it’s wacky. I have since realized that some of the best ideas come out of seemingly crazy thoughts, because otherwise they wouldn’t be new. The holy grail is to find that quantum effects stimulate biological processes that are relevant to medicine. Looking to the long term, if these effects underlie the mechanism of DNA mutations, that could allow for real progress in the treatment of cancer.… There is a huge risk that we may be heading in the wrong direction. But my hunch tells me this is worth it because if we succeed, the payoff will be massive: We will have pioneered a new discipline.
74.2014 - Nina Bardi de Alvarez - Biophysics and Cancer: The Electromagnetic Fields Produced by the Mitochondria and Its Effect on the Cell’s Metabolic Regulation
Based on the EMFs produced by the surrounding molecules found in the micro environment of the mitochondria and the electromagnetic field print they leave, we can state: in the physical world, permittivity and permeability of the mitochondrial membrane potential has demonstrated to be similar to the behavior of the EMF of the Hydrogen isotope H1 (PROTIO), in the aerobic process of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. This is possible only when the EMF emanated by the surrounding microenvironment are week, valued nearly |1|, permitting the normal exchange of the electron charge. Our study focuses on a different path, away from the attention that up to this moment has been directed solely to the restitution of the cellular respiration through the oxygen molecule, thus changing our attention to the basic molecular composition that existed since the beginning of life on earth, even before the appearance of Oxygen bringing us to the Hydrogen molecule... Let’s imagine what would happen if all this Hydrogen ions accumulate in the inter membrane space if the third phase of cellular respiration doesn’t take place: we will have an extra charge electron cloud that can produce strong EMF’S that acidify the extra cellular environment, producing an interference field between the outside and the inside of the mitochondria environment. This can eventually happen, and we are about to see how. What we have left behind is the fact that for every energetic change to take place, various factors must be taken into account and this reflects two important fields in which the results will be seen. In other words, that for each chemical process occurring in our biological system, it requires a biophysical propellant, to promote the processes involved in the energetic forces either by induction or by applied field of different orders... In physics, we call magnetic permeability the capacity of one substance or environment to attract and allowed to pass through it, magnetic fields which are given by the relation between the existing magnetic induction and the magnetic field intensity that appears in the interior of said material.
75.2014 - Emmanouil Dokianakis – Different degree of paternal mtDNA leakage between male and female progeny in interspecific Drosophila crosses
We counted the progeny that contained paternal mtDNA in levels higher than the detection limit of each primer pair... Further studies using crosses within and between species in Drosophila and other organisms are needed to confirm that the mechanism reported in this study is general or not. The next interesting step is to recognize which is the mechanism that controls the leakage of paternal mtDNA in the embryos.
76.2014 – Alexander V. Emelyanov – Drosophila TAP/p32 is a core histone chaperone that cooperates with NAP-1, NLP, and nucleophosmin in sperm chromatin remodeling during fertilization
Despite our increased understanding of the factors that mediate nucleosome assembly in the nascent male pronucleus, the machinery for protamine removal remains largely unknown…. It has been suggested that Xenopus nucleoplasmin is sufficient for the initial stage of SCR (decondensation of demembranated sperm and removal of sperm basic proteins SP1–6 in vitro) (Philpott et al. 1991; Philpott and Leno 1992). However, the removal of sperm proteins (and their replacement by histones) in the presence of nucleoplasmin does not appear complete/quantitative (Philpott and Leno 1992; Katagiri and Ohsumi 1994)… On the other hand, considering poor evolutionary conservation of protamine number and identities, it is possible that species other than Drosophila use smaller or larger sets of factors for SCR. … In the future, it will be interesting to analyze cross-reactivity of protamines and protamine chaperones from these species in MSC remodeling in vitro and in vivo.
79.2014 - Ministerul Agriculturii şi Dezvoltării Rurale - Strategia pentru dezvoltarea sectorului agroalimentar pe termen mediu și lung Orizont 2020-2030
Prezentul document oferă o viziune sustenabilă şi pe termen lung asupra dezvoltării spaţiului rural din România printr-o abordare sistemică ce ţine cont de interconexiunile dintre economie, societate şi mediu. Acest document de politică publică recunoaşte şi promovează nevoia de coeziune socială, egalitate între sexe şi diversitate culturală în vederea unei dezvoltării umane echitabile. De asemenea, documentul recunoaşte importanţa nevoilor şi intereselor diferitelor grupuri sociale indiferent de etnie, rasă, situaţie socio-economică, credinţă, orientare sexuală, vârstă, sex
80.2014 – Konstantina Skourti-Stathaki – A double-edged sword: R loops as threats to genome integrity and powerful regulators of gene expression
Therefore, understanding their function and regulation under these opposite situations is essential to fully characterize the mechanisms that control genome integrity and gene expression… The last decade has seen a significant expansion of our knowledge of R-loop biology and function. For years, R loops were considered a threat to cells as a rare transcriptional by-product (Aguilera and Garcia-Muse 2012). It is only now that we start to realize that they may have a major regulatory role in gene function. They can be the ‘‘two sides of a coin,’’ deleterious structures but also finetuners of gene expression. Given their involvement in multiple cellular processes, understanding how cells prevent the negative functions of R loops yet allow their positive ones is a challenge for the years to come. Perhaps the key to this question is the unpaired ssDNA derived from these structures. … A great deal has been learned in recent years about factors that prevent or resolve R loops. Research should now aim to discover more factors (in addition to Rad51 and AtNDX) that actively promote R-loop formation. Is there an evolutionarily conserved protein that is generally responsible for R-loop formation? Answering this fundamental question will perhaps allow us to better understand the dual functions of R loops and also link R loops to hitherto unanticipated cellular processes…. As mentioned above, R loops are thought to play a role in neurodegenerative disorders even though strong evidence for this association has yet to be established. R loops could offer a novel angle on regulation of transcription, and it is now the time to unravel their possible links with cancer and neurodegenerative disease. From the examples mentioned in this review, it is evident that R loops lie at the interphase of different fields: transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and chromatin.More than ever, we need to interconnect these fields to fully understand how R loops modulate genome dynamics.
81. 2014 - K. Ye - Extensive pathogenicity of mitochondrial heteroplasmy in healthy human individuals
It’s been known for a long time that lesions in mitochondrial DNA become more prevalent with age. This study offers the intriguing possibility that maybe everybody has a little bit of something wrong with their mitochondrial DNA and that might play a role in aging... Severe mtDNA mutations can cause certain myopathies, epilepsy, and other diseases, while less pathogenic variants have been implicated in complex conditions such as type 2 diabetes, aging, and cancer. Although these results suggest pathogenic mtDNA mutations are more prevalent than previously thought, the low frequency at which they occur is unlikely to have a negative impact on health. However, if the mutations increase in frequency in some fraction of cells as they divide, they could provide a likely source of mitochondrial dysfunction
82.2015 – Erin Abner – Can the brain be trained?
This model is attractive in that it solves the "binding problem" of sexual attraction. By that I mean the problem of why all the different features of men or women (visual appearance and feel of face, body, and genitals; voice quality, smell; personality and behavior, etc.) attract people as a more or less coherent package representing one sex, rather than as an arbitrary collage of male and female characteristics. If all these characteristics come to be attractive because they were experienced in association with a male- or female-specific pheromone, then they will naturally go together even in the absence of complex genetically coded instructions.
84. 2015 - N. Moullan - Tetracyclines disturb mitochondrial function across eukaryotic models: a call for caution in biomedical research
From plants to mice and human cells, tetracyclines lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in model organisms. Given their results, the researchers cautioned against widespread tetracycline use in livestock because of the potential repercussions for neighboring plant life and human health.
86.2015 – Valerio Carreli - Keeping in shape the dogma of mitochondrial DNA maternal inheritance
The sperm mitochondria enter the oocyte during fertilization in mammals , but paternal mitochondria and mtDNA disappear at the initial cell divisions of the embryo in a stringently species-specific fashion … The way by which paternal mtDNA inheritance fails to occur in humans remains elusive, and it appears that several mechanisms have coevolved to avoid paternal mtDNA contribution to the embryo … The consequent leakage of paternal mtDNA in the newborn may have remained “undetected” by the standard sequencing approaches…. Alternatively, if mtDNA haplotypes are unevenly distributed among the tissues of the newborn , or shift in an age and tissue-dependent fashion , there remains a possibility that paternal mtDNA is detectable only in certain tissues.
87.2015 – Arnold De Louf – From Darwin’s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection... to The evolution of Life with Communication
“The variability in morphological and physiological biological systems gives us the impression that it is unlikely that they are based upon a simple common principle. Yet, with some logical thinking, it becomes clear that there is a central principle, namely that all living matter is constructed as sender-receiver communicating compartments that incessantly talk (= handle information), thereby solving problems, most of them in an automated way. As already also stated by other authors (Witzany 2010, Torday and Rehan 2012, Westling 2013, Jablonka and Lamb 2014, and others) the communication approach urges for an adequate follow-up in evolutionary theory. How did the first such sender-receiver come into existence? Was a potential genetic information-carrier (RNA, DNA, proteins?) first, or was a protein aceous ‘clothes hanger’ first, e.g. an actin-like molecule to which RNA and enzymes etc could be suspended (De Loof 1993a), or did co-evolution of code and structure occur (Caetano-Anollés 2010)? How did it next give birth, during approximately 3.5 billion years to the multitude of different communicating compartments, ever more complex in structure and with ever novel signaling pathways/languages? From this point of view, evolution is about changing languages and concurrent deciphering programs of signs (semiotics) in cultural (Wheeler 2006, Kull and Emmeche 2011) and organic (De Loof 2002) evolution.”
91.2015 - Tetsuya Ishii – Opinion: On global GMO regulation
This solution can be an option to enhance the social acceptance as long as the DNA tag is found to incur no health and environmental risks. Most of the plant mutants in the analyzed reports may be outside the current GMO regulations. Although the selection of a regulatory line may vary from country to country, we propose that the most stringent regulation should be initially adopted and gradually relaxed for cautious integration of genome-edited crops into society. We also urge careful consideration of labelling of food containing genome-edited crops… Worldwide, regulatory response to genome editing have been delayed. We hope that our analysis provides a basis for discussion on global regulations and stimulates public discussion on foods containing genome-edited crops.
92.2015 – Melvin Konner – Women after all. Sex evolution, and the end of male supremacy
There is a birth defect that is surprisingly common, due to a change in a key pair of chromosomes. In the normal condition the two look the same, but in this disorder one is shrunken beyond recognition. The result is shortened life span, higher mortality at all ages, an inability to reproduce, premature hair loss, and brain defects variously resulting in attention deficit, hyperactivity, conduct disorder, hypersexuality, and an enormous excess of both outward and self-directed aggression. The main physiological mechanism is androgen poisoning, although there may be others. I call it the X-chromosome deficiency syndrome, and a stunning 49 percent of the human species is affected. It is also called maleness. My choice to call being male a syndrome and to consider it less normal than the usual alternative is not (as I will show you) an arbitrary moral judgment. It is based on evolution, physiology, development, and susceptibility to disease. Once in our distant past, all of our ancestors could reproduce from their own bodies; in other words, we were all basically female. When biologists ask why sex evolved, they are not asking rhetorically—the fact that sex feels good was a valuable addition. What they are really asking is: Why did those self-sufficient females invent males? It had to be a very big reason, since they were bringing in a whole new cast of characters that took up space and ate their fill, not to mention being quite annoying, but could not themselves realize the goal of evolution: creating new life.
93.2015 – D. Mandell - Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design
One of the biggest concerns about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is that they can infiltrate wild populations and spread their altered genes among naturally occurring species… Geneticallly Recoded Organisms (GROs) are resistant against multiple viruses and fail at horizontal gene transfer-one of the ways genetically engineered DNA could migrate into a natural population.
94.2015 - Jeffrey Marlow – The energy of life
Many of the most promising astrobiological targets in our solar system may well possess the baseline requirements for life such as liquid water and key elements, but net energy availability is an unknown.
95.2015 – Roberta B. Ness – The creativity crisis
Finally, what about a few enticing reports that have linked obesity to a specific common cold virus, Adenovirus 36, or to the microbes that reside within our gastrointestinal tracts? The point is not that targeting the food environment or microorganisms will provide an answer to reducing obesity. The point is that science keeps looking for keys under the same old lamppost. To find the key to these alarming dangers, science must embark on risker adventures. Invention generates ever more gizmos and gadgets, but imagination is not providing clues to solving the scientific puzzles that threaten our very existence. The purpose of this book is to try to explain this paradox. I will argue that today’s science has the greatest potential in the history of human existence for transformative innovation, yet science has become too cautionary to realize its promise. Caution is obligatory to the sustenance of society and organizations, yet vigilance can go too far. Our desires to maintain economic productivity, a social status quo, and ethical purity, I believe, have enveloped us in an excessive wariness that suffocates disruptive creativity. Creation and caution should be in equipoise, but currently they are not. Modern science has evolved a set of unintended limitations that are deeply embedded in its very fabric. This book is about how we can rebalance creation and caution. It is a proposal for reinventing the ecosystem so as to accelerate much-needed progress. It is about unleashing science’s disciples to maximize their imaginative possibilities.
98.2015 – Contzen Pereira – The energy of life. Electromagnetic radiation, a living cell and the soul: a collated hypothesis
The word ‘soul’ does not have a scientific definition but through this paper is hypothesized to be an indefinite, non-structured, massless energy made up of electromagnetic radiations that is confined in the cytoskeletal network of the biological cell. Electromagnetic radiations continually interact with the biological cell and propagate within the cell; by a pathway known as ‘Cell-Soul Pathway’. This pathway is a coherent, imperceptible, uncontainable and recyclable support pathway, which uses this energy to promulgate consciousness in a biological cell. The cell-soul pathway augments with stress and ceases with death and results in liberation of the energy as ultra-weak electromagnetic radiations that coalesce with the universe. The cell-soul pathway creates a strong correlation between science and consciousness, and with religion and spirituality.
99.2015 - Jiri Pokorny - Mitochondrial dysfunction and disturbed coherence: Gate to cancer
Microtubule physical characteristics comply with the requirements for generating the EMG field: they are electrically polar, nonlinear, and excited by energy supply. Tubulin heterodimers forming organized structure of microtubules are electric dipoles whose dipole moments are about 1000 Debye, i.e., 10-26 cm [29,30]. Several mechanisms have been described for energy supply required to excite polar vibrations. Energy can be supplied by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP upon ß-tubulin polymerization [31,32], by energy losses through the motion of motor proteins along microtubules , and most likely also by non-utilized energy freed from mitochondria [34,35]. Photons released from chemical reactions may supply energy in the UV and visible wavelength region… Mechanism restricting manipulation of the DNA memory is not yet understood… The essential property of living systems is a coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer development deserves elucidation… Application of electromagnetic fields for cancer treatment encounters serious obstacles regardless of selectivity in the case of resonance. A small signal electromagnetic field need not be effectively absorbed due to symmetry of the cellular generating system preventing loss of power and information transfer into the cell surroundings in the case of a separated cell or ordering corresponding to interaction with the surrounding cells in the case of a cell in the tissue. Nevertheless, absorption of electromagnetic signals can be used for cancer diagnostics . A weak sinusoidal magnetic field affects the cell mediated immunity . It cannot be excluded that small signal electromagnetic resonances can trigger some important processes in a living cell. Killing strategy by electromagnetic heating can be selective in the case of resonance. However, in nonlinear systems the resonant frequency depends on energy stored in the oscillating systems. Therefore, the frequency of the emitted signal for treatment should be continually adjusted to the highest absorption of the near electromagnetic field in the cancer cells similarly as in cancer diagnostics [55, 65]. The overheating of the surrounding tissue by heat conduction and blood transfer should be prevented.
102.2015 – Anton Samuelsson – Bioelectromagnetics for improved crop productivity
I would also like to mention that I am neither a physicist nor an expert in the science of plant bioelectromagnetics. It is a highly advanced and complex subject, and to delve into it the way I have done the past six months has been extremely interesting but sometimes also very frustrating. There is a vast amount of literature in the subject, with many reported effects and proposed theories. Even so, there is still no general consensus in many areas of the subject. the literature, the terminology and quality of the actual physics also vary, making it difficult. … It is supposed to make further browsing of the literature easier for the reader, and possibly separate some from fiction in a study veiled in controversy. Though, as said, I am no expert and do not to know all the answers, or to offer all the various mechanisms in a highly precise manner. Should there be something I have missed or misinterpreted, feel free to make contact and help me in my own understanding of this puzzling field of study. I hope you will enjoy the reading, and that this might be the introduction you need to start pursuing the exciting world of interactions between electromagnetic fields and plants…. Many biological effects and mechanisms has also been described and proposed, but much is still debated and more research is needed in this areas since they are key in improving the predictability and accuracy of EM treatments… The subject requires depth interdisciplinary knowledge, making it inaccessible for the majority of biologists, horticulturists and growers.
104.2015 – USA – US Congress moves to block human-embryo editing
The US Congress recently held its first hearing on human germline genetic modification. Now Republican congressional leaders have included a provision in the current spending bill that would block editing of viable human embryos and could interfere with important research. Concern over a possible reactive move by Congress on human embryo editing has been building so this was not exactly a shock, but is still a concern. The National Academy of Sciences and its Institute of Medicine (IOM) have taken on the task of holding a meeting more broadly on the issue of heritable human genetic modification and issuing a report. According to multiple sources including a great new piece in Nature News by Sara Reardon, the US House would also require the US FDA to consult religious “experts” as it weighs three-person IVF, a form of human genetic modification intended to prevent genetic mitochondrial diseases… Three-person IVF has been approved in the UK, but not in the US due at least in part to unresolved safety concerns. I have been one of the main scientists openly questioning whether three-person IVF is ready for prime time because of limited relevant pre-clinical data… From S. Reardon’s article: “The House legislation calls for another layer of review. It would direct the FDA to establish “an independent panel of experts, including those from faith-based institutions with expertise on bioethics and faith-based medical associations” to review the IOM report once released.”
106.2015 - Anicka Yi – Microbial masterpieces
It has been incredibly educational and really fun and I also feel like there are just so many possibilities. Bacteria are a rich material as an idea, but also as the thing itself.
108.2016 - R. Ford Denison – The evolution of cooperation
Nevertheless, cooperation is found throughout the living world—from the cellular to the societal level. Our cells are descended from single-celled organisms that once competed with or preyed on one another, but now work together to function as a cohesive unit. Within our cells, the mitochondria that provide energy are descended from free-living bacteria that gave up their autonomy for a cooperative existence. Lichens, corals, and many plants host beneficial bacteria or fungi within their bodies and depend on them for vital nutrients; and different species of microorganisms living within a host may be interdependent on one another. Ants defend trees that house and feed them. Animals, from bees to lions, cooperate with close relatives, and human civilization depends on cooperation even among unrelated individuals. What drives the evolution of these relationships, and why are they not more widespread? … This sort of manipulation can ensure that partners continue to cooperate with their current hosts. But cooperation based on manipulation may lapse whenever manipulation does, and thus does not necessarily favor the evolution of cooperation over generations. Sanctions that reduce the frequency of cheaters in future generations may have longer-lasting benefits…. The key to harnessing such cooperative relationships is to understand them at the most basic biological levels. Continued research on within- and between-species cooperation will be necessary to make the most of our social world.
109.2016 – D.J. Van Hofwegen– Rapid evolution of citrate utilization by Escherichia coli by direct selection requires citT and dctA
Scott Minnich, a fellow Seattle-based nonprofit Discovery Institute, is a proponent of intelligent design, the theory that “certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. He told The Scientist his personal beliefs played no role in the research. “I am not questioning anyone’s religious or philosophical positions in this paper. My world view is irrelevant.”… “When natural selection—that is, differential survival and reproduction—favors bacteria whose genomes have mutations that enable them to grow on citrate, those mutations most certainly provide new and useful information to the bacteria,” Lenski and Blount countered in their blog post. “To say there’s no new genetic information when a new function has evolved (or even when an existing function has improved) is a red herring that is promulgated by the opponents of evolutionary science.”
111.2016 – Lance L. Muun – The forces of cancer
Importantly, tumor stiffness tends to be associated with poor prognoses, though the reasons for this are not fully understood. … However, cancer cells invariably develop resistance to treatment and begin to regrow, increasing solid stress again. As a result, other targets for reducing solid stresses are needed.
112.2016 - John C. Polanyi (1986 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry) - On being a scientist: a personal view
Science never gives up searching for truth, since it never claims to have achieved it. It is civilizing because it puts truth ahead of all else, including personal interests. These are grand claims, but so is the enterprise in which scientists share. How do we encourage the civilizing effects of science? First, we have to understand science… Science, by contrast, is story-telling. This is evident in the way we use our primary scientific instrument, the eye. The eye searches for shapes. It searches for a beginning, a middle, and an end. What we see is as a consequence, culturally conditioned. This is open to misunderstanding. It might be construed to mean that our conclusions are simply a matter of taste, which they are not. Though we explore in a culturally-conditioned way, the reality we sketch is universal. It is this, at its most basic, that makes science a humane pursuit; it acknowledges the commonality of people's experience… Though neglectful of their responsibility to protect science, scientists are increasingly aware of their responsibility to society. But what is this responsibility? … They must work through democratic channels. Anything else would be incredible arrogance. What responsibilities remain? Plenty… In the course of these political struggles, scientists became increasingly aware of themselves as an international non-governmental organization. This NGO bases itself, I claim, not primarily on its technical expertise but on its moral tenets. In science, we have a group of individuals supporting one another, world-wide, in an endeavour whose success depends upon placing the truth ahead of personal advantage… Our community's voyage of self-discovery is not over. I believe that it will lead us to a more active support of democracy, wherever it is threatened.
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